Power distance: Hofstede et al., (2010) have informed that power distance is observed when people in an institution or organization with less power know about the in equal distribution of power. Malaysia is such a country where status differentiation is accepted, (Ghemawat & Reiche, 2016), as they show respect to their superiors. They further inform that this type of situation is observable in the organizations, where social class, age, family role etc. are given importance. Conversely, country like Denmark has the culture of low power distance and hence do not tend to have differences in social class or organizational hierarchy and hence more participation is observed in the matters of decision making which remains as the important criteria.
Masculinity vs. Femininity: Hofstede et al., (2010) term it as dispersal of roles between the genders, making it another type of cultural issue for those societies where variations of solutions are found. Ghenmawat & Reiche (2011) inform that in the country like Nigeria, the masculinity culture plays the dominant role under the atmosphere of tough values like assertiveness, achievement, material success & competitions that has connections with the roles of the male; Sweden contrastingly has the feminist culture and for this soft values such as quality of life, care for others, personal relationships and (in a special note) the gender notes which are lesser distinct are given preference. In the feminine dominant cultures, more as well stronger importance are placed by firms for the better life of the employees than the bottom line performance, as is experienced in the masculine counterpart.
Short-term vs Long-term orientation: Further to the 4 already mentioned dimensions, the fifth cultural dimension i.e. Confucian Work Dynamic has been proposed by Hofstede, as was cited by (Wu, 2006), who completed some studies on 22 countries’ university students by using Chinese Value Survey. In this, three out of four factors are co-related with the cultural dimension of Hofstede’s (1984) and the long term orientation’s value association with perseverance and thrift. But those which are aligned to short term orientation have respects for filling social obligations, tradition and one’s face protection. The teachings of Confucius have the links with these rated values. Hofstede et al., (2010) informs that fostering of virtues which are oriented towards future rewards and can be possible through long term orientation, thrift and perseverance; however the short term orientation reflects about the virtues’ tradition that has relation with the present in particular and past, preservation of face, respect for tradition and the fulfilment of social obligation.
2.4.2. Other cultural researchers’ different overview
The onion, pertaining to inner layer of culture has been looked into by Schwartz (1994), which is the post research empirical study by Hofstede. Drawing in (Schwartz, 1994; Hofstede, 1980), the study, in the pursuit of defining human values is reliant on values as the “Fascinating goals” that, by acting as instructions, could change the priorities of human lives. According to (Ng, Lee and Soutar, 2016), samples were asked by Schwartz while studying the students and teachers of more than forty countries for evaluating the importance of fifty six values that could have been their lives’ leading instruction. With the assumptions the individual’s values reflect same type of experience and also the cultural influence, the findings’ analysis was based on 2 directions 1) cultural and 2) individual direction, as was commented by (Schwartz, 1994).
Continued to Part--5