Continued from Part--4
With a view to deeply studying Hofstede and Schwartz’s cultural theories, studies of Ng, Lee and Soutar (2007) were based on, which revealed that in terms of trade, the frameworks of Schwartz had added Hofstede’s 5 dimensional values.
In addition to this, with the Dutch background, Fons Trompenaars, another culturalist, along with another colleague Hampden Turner, came out with a new theoretical framework, by basing on the way of culture expanding the avenues of handling unforeseen circumstances and problems. According to (Trompenaars, 1994; Müller & Turner, 2004), one 7 dimensional framework was developed by them, out of an empirical study on fifteen thousand employees, belonging to fifty countries. The works of Trompenaars was based on the individuals & their culture and also on the 5 out of 7 dimensions had the relation with the people of a community, having interconnection with other.
These dimensions include: Particularism (which takes into account the particular relationship) vs. universalism (which takes into account the application of general standard). It has also need gratification (affective) vs. neutralism (restraints of impulses). This reflects about the quantum of feelings, which is assumed as accepted for public show; self-orientation (individualism) vs. collectivism-orientation (communitarianism) that tells about societal prominence of the community or of the individual; achieved status that can judge people as per their nature of jobs vs. ascribed status that judges others by knowing about who they are and embodies the extent of according higher status to some of the members of a society; specific that has bounding relations with others in some specific areas vs. diffuse which, in the context of relations, has no previous relation (the extent others are placed by us in the life’s some specific areas, as have been commented by (Hofstede, 2016 and Magnusson et al., 2016 and Trompenaars and Turner- Hampden, 1997).
According to Magnusson et al., (2008) and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner, (1997) People’s attitudes were pointed out by one more aspect of the study towards time in culture that gives rise to the 6th dimension (giving meaning to the time as synchronization vs. time as sequence that reflects about the orientation in time, encircling past-present & future. People’s affinity with their environment was the Trompenaar’s last dimension. This dimension wants to know about whether nature controls us or we control nature, in the context of harmony-subjugation-mastery, which is in accordance with Magnusson et al., 2016 & Hofstede, (2009). The reflections of internal control showed self-judgment within the mind of a person that considers thinking as the crucial useful tool while external control pertains to the life’s experienced information. The reason behind this is people are in search of information before finalising a decision.
Cultural theory & its criticism
In the world of 21st century, a tremendous change has been noticed everywhere that research done by Hofstede in 1990s, needs to be reconsidered. Roxas and Stoneback (2004) viewed that the opinions of many researchers’ measurement of Hofstede’s research was out-dated because of the study was conducted in early 20th century. It was assumed that rank of Hofsede fell down soon after all this. By considering that Hofsede’s research was more than 20 years old, it was proposed by Baskerville (2003) that the research lacks thought of constancy and that too added with cultural dissimilarities, lack the confidence etc.
Continued to Part--6