Continued from Part--5
On the basis of the details given in Hofstede’s study, it was proposed by Baskerville that organizational culture is particular, monopolistic and uniform, however, actually there is no evidence for the Hofsted’s suggestion and not a single IBM international organisational culture is there that can raise arguments against Baskerville’s proposal (McSweeney, (2002); (Parker, (2000). On the national aspect, Hofstede’s studies can be criticized. It was also believed by few researchers that some implications might overlap among the dimensions. Even though, criticism against the Hofstede’s study continues and there detailed study on national culture or culture by keeping the business viewpoint was not done by any researcher. Hofstede’s dimensions are still in practice for the studies focusing business. Also, dimensions of Hall and Hofstede’s are being used in the recent studies as it is considered that these dimensions are quantifiable and business related. (Roxas & Stoneback, 2004).
Nigeria and Sweden score, as per cultural dimensions of Hofstede
Hofstede studied 50 countries and gave ranking to Sweden and Nigeria on the basis of five dimensions. This ranking is represented in the below given figure where the comparison of dissimilarities in the culture of both countries is visible.
Adopted from: Hofstede’s Official Website (2013).
As per the studies of Hofstede et al., (2010), PDI scored of Sweden is low that means probably Sweden society is of individualistic type. It means culture of Sweden is featured as decentralized power, independent and consultative and participative decision making. Ease is the only reason for hierarchy. Mutual benefit is the only basis for the employee and employer relationship. Quality of life, taking care of others and femininity are the dominating factors of this type of society. Given below are the scores of Sweden for five dimensions:
. Power Distance (PDI): 31
. Long-term Orientation (STO): 20
Masculinity (MAS): 5
. Individualism (IDV): 71
. Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI): 29
It was proved by Hofstede’s study that score of Nigeria was high for PDI that means Nigeria society is collectivistic where intrinsic variations, order of hierarchy is acceptable. There is centralized power and employees need guidance to work. In this type of society, strong relationship is there among group members and hierarchy is there to make the decisions. Top management is responsible here to make the decisions and norms like hard work, rules or codes and timekeeping are always followed here as uncertainties are preferable avoided. Below given are the scores of Nigeria for five dimensions:
. Power Distance (PDI): 80
. Long-term Orientation (LTO): 16
. Masculinity (MAS): 60
. Individualism (IDV): 30
. Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI): 55
. Decision making
Making a decision is a cognitive or mental process used to select a suitable action out of various options, in the process of solving a problem. Decision can be defined as a group of dynamic factors and actions that requires a stimulus to initiate as well as a promise to finish (Mintzberg et al.,1976).
Continued to Part--7