Literature review refers to previous studies and literature, related to this topic. As far as culture, projects and decision making aspects are concerned, different types of opinions and insights are there. Culture, projects and decision making are the three different categories in this chapter; which are sub-categorized further. The formulation of theoretical frame works that belongs to this study has been formed by this way.
What is a Project?
Referring to (PMBOK, 2000), the works of the organizations are the forms of some operations or projects. Although, these two terms ‘operations’ or projects do differ in their meanings, they have similarities too; the reason behind is they are having the constraints of plans and limited resources of planning, executing and controlling, and importantly, they are performed by the people. That is why according to (PMBOK, 2000) often the projects are meant for an organization’s strategic plan accomplishments. (PMBOK, 2000) furthers to inform that a project means doing something which is unique in nature because it was not done earlier. This means that a project is an endeavour for short term by creating a unique service or product. The words being used in the definition here: unique and short term is expatriations of the sense that a project has a beginning and an end. All levels in an organisation run the project. A new business can get implemented in a project process or procedure, developing a new service or any new product, style or staffing of an organization, effecting modification in structure, designing a new product, constructing a facility or a building, building a community water system, acquiring or developing an information system which is either new or modified. All these examples are the explanations of the way of perceiving a project. If it is needed to develop a commercial airline project, it may make use of number of prototypes. For introducing a new drug, numerous samples of the drug are needed to be distributed for clinical trial or developing the project.
What is a Project Team?
A project team is a group of individuals who are cooperative in their functions, by sharing responsibilities for results, who see themselves and who are seen by others as an indiscrete social body entrenched in one or more larger social systems (e.g. business unit or the corporation) and who manage their relationship across organisational boundaries (Bailey & Cohen, 1997; Chiocchio & Essiembre, 2009). Project teams are considered as benefits to organizations comprising of a group of employees that are formally organised, interdependent with different roles and assigned some sovereignty (Jeppesen & Rasmussen 2006 as was referred to in Chiocchio & Essiembre, 2009).
A group of employees comprise project teams which are assigned to accomplish a one-time project within a particular time (Taylor, 2010). These teams assemble people with varying knowledge, skills, abilities, emotions, behaviours, experiences etc. and they are expected to be conventional become productive in doing work such as managing the organization, who can make decisions, develope new services & products and solve problems than left working individually (Sessa & London, 2011).
Continued to Part--2