Continued from Part--10
When there is too much strain or a real strain it is known as psychological strain, there is no doubt that somatic strain refers to the condition of being ‘fatigued’ or ‘used up’ or ‘emotionally drained’. There are 2 components in personal accomplishment they are 1) self and 2) other. In case there is lack of job competency, it may lead to declining in personal accomplishment. While on the other hand the expectations and views of others are considered as personal accomplishment (others).
John Izzo, an ex HR professional was quoted by Luthans (2002: 398) for describing ‘burnout’-- when a sense of basic purpose along with the desire for fulfilling of work are lost the condition is known as ‘burnout’. Luthans (2002) views that there are many tasks, the performances of which are heavily affected by stress for which, if stress raises significantly the performances of these tasks drop drastically. For affecting work many factors are there related to stresses in individuals.
Major causes at the back of stress
Faragher, Sparks, & Cooper, (2001: 490) a large number of restructuring works began in the period of 1990s, when organizations in the recession affected countries started downsizing their structures and a few had to restructure for their survival. During this period, (March (2001) and August 2003), 2.7 million jobs were lost in USA alone (Heylin, 2004: 28). This resulted into increased number of sub-contracting and outsourcing by the companies. These companies, by this way, could remain competitive in the global market; (Rial-Gonzalez, Cox, & Griffiths in Faragher, Sparks, & Cooper, 2001: 490) they could also experience a rise in teleworking, short term contracts, new patterns of working, team work, self regulated works, development of increased number of workforce and rapid increment in the computerized technology use. Increase in part time workers, females, and dual-earner couples were noticed in some countries.
According to Heylin (2004: 28), during last 4 decades the percent of the number of payrolls (females) in the United States of America has risen from 37% to nearly 49%. Because of these improvements, employee wellbeing and occupational research are being more concentrated upon by the organizations, which in turn have caused more number of cases of stress. According to Faragher, Sparks & Cooper, (2001: 490) the cases of stresses are related to control at work, job insecurity and managerial style and work hours.
Stress and Job insecurity
A trend in increased number of perceived job insecurity has been noticed in those organizations where downsizing and restructuring were taken as the measures (Pentti, Ferrie, Kivimäki& Vahtera2000: 972). The negative impact was noticed not only in the blue color job, which may start with graduate level and scale upto professional level jobs was also affected as was viewed by Smithson & Lewis; (2000) viewed it. Traditionally, as was viewed by (Greenglass & Burke, 2001) the majority of the retrenched employees were the young males engaged in the blue-collar jobs. As on date, white-collar workers with higher pay are positioned at the peak of their careers, but being shunted out of their jobs. . Faragher, Burchellet al in Sparks and Cooper, (2001: 491) inform that both the oldest and youngest employees of an entity were the main victims of the retrenchments due to job insecurity or dearth of job.
Continued to Part--12