Medicine basically deals with the treatment of the diseases and the prevention of the diseases and also takes cares so that the patient can live happily and healthy wise.
In Old days the only one and only MBBS doctor used to handle all the cases and the patients with the various diseases. Today there are many Top Medical Colleges in India that provide the various specializations in medicine and there are individual specialty doctors to work on particular diseases. Doctors with specializations in different branches of medicine need the good knowledge and experience for diagnosis and the treatment. The study of Medicine is divided into many specializations being offered. Medical Entrance exams are also conducted for giving admissions to the good Medical Colleges in India.Mentioned below are few among them and top among them
1. Radiology: The radiology is the one of the best Medical specialization that is being offered and also deals with the use of the imaging technologies. The one who gets specialized in the radiology field is called Radiologist. The doctor here uses the X-Ray, Computed tomography (CT), radionuclides, ultrasound, electromagnetic radiation and other image guided intervention while studying and treating the diseases. The Radiology field is being divided into various sub specialties like Neuro-radiology, nuclear radiology, pediatric radiology and the vascular and the interventional radiology.
2. Anesthesiology: The anesthesiologist or an anesthetist basically gives the patient the anesthesia before the operation in order to make the operation easy for the patient. Pain Management is the basic thing which is taught in these specializations. The doctors mainly focus on the pain killing drugs during the surgery in the operating room. Here the patients are given the anesthesia with respect to the prescription medication, injections and the other therapeutic methods.
3. Emergency Medicine: This is one of the best and the youngest medical specialties in which the physicians care for the patients with the medicines and treat the illnesses or the injuries that require the immediate medical attention. It consists of large amount of the general medicine and the surgery including the surgical sub specialties. The Emergency Medicine has been recognized separately by the Medical Council of India in India.
4. Cardiology: Study of Cardiology basically deals with the diseases related to the heart. The doctors who do specialization in cardiology are called cardiologist. Cardiology involves the diagnosis and the treatment of hereditary heart defects, coronary artery diseases, heart failure, the valvular heart disease and the electrophysiology. The cardiologist will not directly do the heart operation, they perform the cardiac surgery via sternotomy-open operative procedures on the heart and the great vessels.
5. Pathology: The pathology basically involves the study and the diagnosis of the diseases through the examinations of the organs, bodily fluids and the tissues. The basic specilaitiy of this specialization is that it has the ability to determine the symptoms with the naked eye. The pathology consists of all the medicines. This is one of the unique specializations among all. Most of the decisions about the disgnosis, treatment, hospital admissions and the discharge are based on the pathological studies. The Pathology has been divided into two sub specialties that is Anatomical Pathology and the clinical Pathology.
6. Obstetrics and Gynecology: The obstetrics deals with the treatment given to a women who is pregnant or the pre-natal care, where as the Gynecology is the specialization in the medicine which involves the checking the health of the female reproductive organs. Both these specializations are practiced together. Obstetricians and the Gynecologist (OB/Gyn) perform the operations like Caesarian, laparoscopies and the hysteroscopy’s. They also deal with the ovarian cancer and the other ailments that are related to the reproductive systems. The doctor who is interested in doing OB/Gyn can also undertake the optional fellowship to the sub specialize in the various areas like Maternal Fetal Medicine, reproductive Endocrinology, Uro-Gynecology , Gynecological Oncology etc.
7. Neurology: Neurology involves treating the disorders that are related to the nervous systems including the disease with the brain, spinal cord, nerves and the muscles. The specialization with the neurology is basically divided into clinical neurophysiology, child neurology and also the Pain Medicine. A neurologist is also involved in the clinical research, the basic research and the translational research. The nervous system is one of the most complex systems hence there are various factors that are affecting it. The Neurology study also deals with the study in epilepsy, stroke and the cerebrovascular medicine, multiple sclerosis and the movement disorders.
8. Pediatrics: Pediatrics basically deals with managing the medical conditions that affect the Infants, the children and the young people. The Pediatricians also deal with providing the health services. This field also includes oncology, rheumatology, neonatology, neurology, neurodisablity and nephrology.
9. Dermatology: Dermatology is specialization in medicine which involves the diagnosis and the treatment of disorders of the skin,mouth,external geitalia,the hair, nails and also the number of sexually transmitted diseases(STDs).A dermatologist also deals and treats the Skin Cancers,melanomas,moles and the other tumors of the skin respectively. The Dermatology felid is divided into sub specializations like cosmetic, dermatology, Dermatopathology, Immunodermatology, Pediatric dermatology and the teledermatology.
10. Otolaryngology: Otolaryngology deals with the study of ear, nose and the throat. It deals with the medical and the surgical specialty that involves the diagnosis and the treatment of the disorders that deals with the head and the neck. One who does specializations in this course is called otolaryngologist and he/she performs the medical and provides the surgical therapy for the prevention of the diseases,allergies,neoplasms,deformities,disorders and take care of the injuries of the nose,sinuses,throat,respiratory and the upper alimentary systems,face,jaw and other head and the neck systems. The other specializations that are involved in Otolaryngology are neurotology, pediatric, otolaryngology, plastic surgery within the head and the neck and sleep medicines.
11. Oncology: Oncology basically deals with the diagnosis and the treatment of the cancer. The doctor is the one who does specializations in this course is called Oncologist. There are three types of Oncologists i.e. Medical, surgical and the radiation oncologist who basically work together while they are treating the cancer pateints.Apart from these sub specializations the others are Interventional Oncology, Gynecologic oncology and the Pediatric oncology.